Regional cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) can be approximated from Hounsfield units (HU) measured on CT examinations using automatic exposure control; this information is reliable and follows a predictable pattern with increasing age.
Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones lose their content of minerals, particularly calcium. When this occurs, the bones become weakened an prone to fracture. Common sites of fracture include the spine, hip, ribs, and wrist.
The incidence of ankle fractures in the older patient population is rising. These fractures are characterized as fragility fractures associated with osteoporosis, but propensity for falls, increased weight, and polypharmacy may be bigger risk factors than poor bone quality.
Martial arts fall training may reduce the risk of hip fractures in persons with osteoporosis. Training is safe if they wear hip protectors that could attenuate the maximum hip impact force by at least 65%, perform the fall exercises on a thick mattress, and avoid
forward fall exercises from a standing position.
The most common secondary form of osteoporosis is corticosteroid-induced disease. Cases of endogenous corticosteroid excess are few compared with the large number produced by exogenous use of the drug for management of many diverse diseases.