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The Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine Vol 25 No 8

Differentiating osteopoikilosis from osteoblastic metastases

July 27, 2008

ABSTRACT: Osteopoikilosis is a rare, benign osteosclerotic dysplasiathat predominantly involves the appendicular skeleton. Radiographicfindings are diagnostic, and the disease often is discovered incidentallyon x-ray films. The importance of recognizing osteopoikilosis liesin differentiating it from osteoblastic metastases. The cause is unclear.Patients typically are asymptomatic. Diagnostic findings include theappearance of numerous small,well-defined, spheroid sclerotic foci.Because evidence suggests an association with skeletal and dermatologicalchanges, evaluation for coexisting pathological conditions maybe warranted. The differential diagnosis for a patient who has radiographiccharacteristics similar to those of osteopoikilosis includes osteoblasticmetastases, mastocytosis, tuberous sclerosis, melorheostosis,and osteopathia striata. (J Musculoskel Med. 2008;25:387-389)

Corticosteroids for painful shoulder conditions: Injection techniques

July 26, 2008

ABSTRACT: Corticosteroid/anesthetic injections may be useful diagnosticand therapeutic tools for painful shoulder conditions. The currentdogma is to avoid performing more than 3 injections over a9- to 12-month period, but this rule may be broken. The volume of localanesthetic typically injected might be insufficient for assessing accuracy.Data demonstrating significant advantages of one corticosteroidover another are scarce. For patients with diabetes mellitus, considera somewhat insoluble phosphoric corticosteroid. There is no consensusabout appropriate dosages and techniques.We recommend using1.5-inch 25-gauge needles for most injections. Re-evaluating provocativemaneuvers after each injection is important. The patient's estimatedpain relief always should be documented.Two approaches toinjection may be used, an advanced/detailed method and abasic/quick method. (J Musculoskel Med. 2008;25:375-386)