Be aware of the relationship between pain and negative adaptive behaviors, especially in teenagers.
Kamper and fellow researchers1 in Australia and the UK have found a link between back pain during adolescence and depression, anxiety, smoking cigarettes, and drinking alcohol. Thumb through the slides for the details of their study and the take-home points for clinicians.
1. Kamper SJ, Michaleff ZA, Campbell P, et al. Back pain, mental health and substance use are associated in adolescents. J Public Health. 2018 Sep 10. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy129. [Epub ahead of print]