In this quiz, we revisit recent advances made in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
In this quiz, we revisit recent advances made in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For more information about the studies featured in this quiz, see “Research Roundup: New Developments in Lupus.”
Which new disease activity measure for SLE was validated in a recent study?
A. Systemic Lupus Activity Measure, Revised (SLAM-R)
B. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K)
C. SLE Disease Activity Score (SLE-DAS)
D. European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurements (ECLAM)
The correct answer is C. SLE Disease Activity Score (SLE-DAS). The SLE-DAS showed a higher sensitivity than SLEDAI-2K to detect a clinically meaningful improvement or worsening, maintained high specificity, and performed better in predicting damage accrual.
Which factors were found recently to be the largest independent contributors to fatigue in patients with SLE?
A. Stress, depression, and pain
B. Disease activity, sleep, and physical health
C. Diet, physical activity, and body mass index
D. Blood pressure, alcohol use, and smoking status
The correct answer is A. Stress, depression, and pain. Disease activity, sleep, and physical health were not associated. Study authors suggested that understanding fatigue mechanisms can help guide the development of interventions to improve health outcomes in patients with SLE.
In a recent investigation of the links between SLE and cancer, the risks of which cancers were not increased in patients with SLE?
A. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma
B. Prostate cancer and cutaneous melanoma
C. Leukemia and multiple myeloma
D. Renal and bladder cancer
The correct answer is B. Prostate cancer and cutaneous melanoma. SLE was associated with increased risk of overall cancers, risk in both sexes, and 16 cancers. Prostate cancer and cutaneous melanoma risks were decreased in patients with SLE.
Efforts to maintain which aspects of preconception cardiovascular health within the ideal range help improve pregnancy outcomes in women with SLE?
A. Saturated fat, trans fat, and sodium intake
B. Alcohol use, carbohydrate intake, and blood sugar
C. Body mass index, total cholesterol, and blood pressure
D. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and sleep
The correct answer is C. Body mass index, total cholesterol, and blood pressure. Pregnancy outcomes of preterm birth and small for gestational age infants in women with SLE are affected by poor to intermediate preconception cardiovascular health as measured by American Heart Association guidelines.
Combined immunosuppressive treatment performed better than routine cyclophosphamide-only therapy for lupus nephritis in a recent study. True or false?
The correct answer is A. True. The rate and probability of complete remission and total response were higher, with less treatment failure, in a combined group-patients randomized to intravenous CYC, an oral immunosuppressive agent, and hydroxychloroquine-than in those who received IV CYC alone.
Which screening tool was recently found to be potentially useful for identifying patients with SLE who are at risk for cognitive dysfunction?
A. Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)
B. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (MoCA)
C. AD8 Dementia Screening Interview
D. Geriatric Depression Scale
The correct answer is B. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (MoCA). With scores significantly correlated with reference standard scores and high sensitivities, the MoCA showed promise as a practical, inexpensive, and effective screening tool. IQCODE, with low sensitivities, did not.
B-cell depletion therapy using rituximab may be effective in treating not only SLE but also what other type of lupus?
A. Neonatal lupus
B. Childhood lupus
C. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus
D. Drug-induced lupus
The correct answer is C. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus. A cohort study reported a complete clinical response of the cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease to rituximab of 40% of patients at 6 months and 52% at 12 months. Outcomes were variable in subacute CLE and chronic CLE subtypes.