An estimated 45% of Americans are at risk for the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in their lifetime. According to a network meta-analysis published in the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen was ranked most effective in individual knee OA treatment for improving both pain and function, and is considered a relatively safe and low-cost treatment.
Nonsurgical treatments for knee OA supported by previous research evidence include strength training, low-impact aerobic exercises, NSAIDs, and weight loss in individuals with a body mass index over 25. This new research analyzed data from multiple trials to determine the relative effectiveness of various nonsurgical treatments for knee OA. The treatments that were compared and ranked included acetaminophen; ibuprofen; intra-articular (IA) injections of cortisone; platelet-rich plasma (PRP); hyaluronic acid (HA); several NSAIDs, such as naproxen, celecoxib, and diclofenac; and both oral and IA placebo.
“This is the first comprehensive mixed-comparison analysis comparing best-evidence scientific research and excluding lower quality studies that can bias the outcomes,” said lead author and orthopaedic surgeon David Jevsevar, MD, MBA. “Using a statistical ranking technique, we worked to provide evidence regarding which of the most common NSAIDs are most likely to decrease pain and improve function, and we attempted to fill in the gaps in evidence for more inconclusive treatments such as HA, PRP, and corticosteroids.”
Authors analyzed 53 randomized controlled trials that examined knee OA treatments for at least 28 days and included a minimum of 30 participants per study group. Knee OA treatments were ranked on a scale of one to five, with one being the most effective. They found the following:
• For pain reduction, cortisone injections provided the greatest short-term (4 to 6 weeks) pain relief, followed by ibuprofen, PRP injections, naproxen, and celecoxib.
• Naproxen ranked the highest for probability for improving function, followed by diclofenac, celecoxib, ibuprofen, and PRP injections.
• Naproxen was ranked the most effective individual knee OA treatment for improving both pain and function followed by cortisone injections, PRP injections, ibuprofen, and celecoxib.
• HA injections did not achieve a rank in the top five treatments for pain, function, or combined pain and function. An analysis of 12 articles also found that results with HA are not significantly different from those with IA placebo for treatment of knee OA.
Jevsevar DS, Shores PB, Mullen K, et al. Mixed treatment comparisons for nonsurgical treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a network meta-analysis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2018;26:325-336. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-17-00318.
New research ranks the effectiveness of nonsurgical treatments for knee osteoarthritis [press release]. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; May 1, 2018.